Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These bacteria generally infect human lungs. However, it can infect other body parts/organs as well. Three major types of tuberculosis are found: latent, active, and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Symptoms are not identifiable in case of latent tuberculosis, due to presence of an inactive form of bacteria. In active tuberculosis, symptoms are clearly visible and they can spread from one person to another. Coughing for more than two weeks, chest pain, coughing up blood, chills, fatigue, unintentional weight loss, fever, and loss of appetite are some of the common symptoms of active tuberculosis. HIV/AIDS, severe kidney disease, cancer, diabetes, and malnutrition are some of the key risk factors generally found to be associated with tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis can be diagnosed with the help of tests including blood tests, imaging tests (such as chest X-ray or CT scan), and sputum tests. Tuberculosis can be treated with the first-line or second-line therapy. As per a report by World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of deaths occurring worldwide. In 2015, approximately 9 million new cases of TB and 1.5 million deaths caused by TB occurred worldwide. Currently, WHO and certain government agencies are working toward reduction of tuberculosis burden globally, with the help of programs such as Stop TB. In December 2015, Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Program was also launched to check the tuberculosis prevalence across the globe.
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Growing prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is driving the tuberculosis drugs market. Drug shortages is a major restraint for the tuberculosis drugs market, especially in low- to medium-income countries of the world. Tuberculosis associated with diseases such as HIV/AIDS and conditions such as obesity is extremely difficult to manage. The tuberculosis drugs market can be segmented based on drug class, disease type, end-user, and region. In terms of drug class, the market can be categorized into first-line therapy, second-line therapy, and combination therapy. Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Rifampin, and Ethambutol majorly constitute the first-line therapy for TB; while Streptomycin, Capreomycin, Ethionamide, Levofloxacin, and Gatifloxacin are generally considered as a part of the second-line therapy. Second-line therapy is expected to be a rapidly growing segment of the tuberculosis drugs market.
Based on disease type, the tuberculosis drugs market can be segmented into latent tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and drug-resistant tuberculosis. The drug-resistant tuberculosis segment is expected to expand rapidly during the forecast period. In terms of distribution channel, the market can be divided into hospital pharmacy, retail pharmacy, and others. The hospital pharmacy segment held the leading share in the global tuberculosis drugs market in 2016. The segment is projected to expand at a significant CAGR during the forecast period. The others segment is expected to gain a significant market share during the forecast period, due to launch of national government programs.
In terms of geography, the global tuberculosis drugs market can be categorized into five regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific dominated the global tuberculosis drugs market in 2016. Key factors responsible for growth of the market in Asia Pacific are presence of large patient population and high incidence rate of TB, especially in some of the developing economies of the region such as India and China. On the other hand, North America and Europe have a relatively small-sized patient pool with lower incidence rate of the disease. However, high awareness, well-developed health care infrastructure, rapid adoption of advanced yet expensive TB tests, and high purchasing power are driving the market in these regions.
Key players operating in the global tuberculosis drugs market are Sanofi, Novartis AG, Bayer AG, Lupin Limited, Zydus Cadila, Merck & Co., Inc., Pfizer Inc., and AstraZeneca.
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